Most Expensive Table Tennis Blade (Top 8 Best for Value 2022 Reviews)

Last Updated on July 23, 2022 by Sorin Petroj

How much cost the most expensive table tennis blade?

What is the fastest and most expensive table tennis racket?

Are they worth buying?

We have made this article with the best information for table tennis fans and professionals looking for the top, most expensive table tennis blades.

If you are reading this, know that the article is dedicated to more advanced players and contains professional and especially understandable information for those who have been in table tennis for a long time.

Before a more detailed analysis, look at our table and ratings of the most expensive table tennis blades below.

Blade

Image

Price

Rating

Butterfly Zhang Jike Super ZLC table tennis blade thumbnail image

Best Overall

$399.99

Stiga Rosewood NCT VII table tennis blade thumbnail image

Best Control

$229.99

most expensive table tennis blade model joola vyzaryz freeze thumbnail image

Best Spin

$199.95

Stiga Rosewood NCT VII table tennis blade thumbnail image

Best for Backhand

$174.95

Most expensive table tennis blade Victas Liam Pitchford table tennis blade thumbnail image

Best for Rotations

$149.99

Gewo Aruna Hinoki carbon table tennis blade thumbnail image

Best Hinoki Veneers

$112.19

What is the most expensive table tennis blade?

There are many different table tennis blades on the market, ranging in price from around $20 to $400. The most expensive blade is the Butterfly Zhang Jike Super ZLC, priced currently at $400.

The blade is made from a special type of carbon fiber that is 1.8 times more densely woven than other carbon fiber, giving it a larger sweet spot. The blade is also designed for offensive players, with a thinner than average ply structure.

The Butterfly is the most popular table tennis brand globally, and its blades are some of the most expensive on the market. However, they are also some of the highest quality, and many professional players use Butterfly blades.

Expensive Ping Pong Paddle Price Comparison Chart

Expensive Ping Pong Paddle Price Comparison Chart

Should You Try Premade Expensive Rackets?

If you are looking for a new racket, you may be wondering whether to buy a premade model or assemble your own. There are advantages and disadvantages to both choices.

Premade rackets are usually more expensive, but they come with a blade and rubbers that have been carefully chosen to work well together. This can save you time and effort if you don’t want to spend the time researching and testing different combinations.

However, premade rackets may not be the best choice if you have specific preferences, as you may not be able to change the rubbers.

Premade Expensive Ping Pong Paddles

Lin Yun-Ju - Franziska Innerforce - Killerspin Stilo7 most expensive table tennis blade rackets

  1. Butterfly Lin Yun-Ju Proline & Dignics 09C rubbers ($ 573.97)
  2. Butterfly Franziska Innerforce ZLC Proline & Dignics 05 rubbers ($ 457.97)

  3. Killerspin Stilo7 SVR & Nitrx 4Z rubbers – Limited Edition ($ 349.99)

If you are new to table tennis, you may be wondering whether you should invest in a premade, expensive racket. While it is true that high-quality equipment can improve your game, it is essential to remember that table tennis is a skill-based sport.

In other words, the most expensive racket will not make up for lack of practice or natural talent.

However, for experienced players, a premade, expensive racket can be a worthwhile investment. It will improve your game, but it will also help you take your skills to the next level.

You can reach your full potential as a table tennis player with practice and dedication.

1. Butterfly Zhang Jike Super ZLC Blade

most expensive table tennis blades butterfly zhang jike super zlc blade

CHECK OUR DETAILED REVIEW or PRICE ON: MEGASPIN

The most powerful table tennis blade is made with Super ZL carbon. This means you have a better reaction to the ball and a more comprehensive range of responses.

The large all-spot allows you to hit the shots exactly where you want. The highest table tennis blade price is because it gives great power and a good feeling. Spin and block shots are so effective with this blade that you will throw your opponent to his knees.

You will feel the greatest virtues if you play at a medium distance from a ping pong table with counter-attacks. After that, speed and precision come to the fore. We should also mention the efficient entrances to flips and banana flips, which are modern in today’s table tennis. You can’t achieve such moves without an effective table tennis blade.

On the other hand, with Butterfly Zhang Jike Super ZLC, you will further amplify that shot, and it will be very embarrassing for any opponent to cope.

Most Expensive Blade – Zhang Jike Super ZLC Features

  • Class: OFF
  • Style: Attack
  • Plies: 5W+2SZLC
  • Thickness: 5.6mm
  • Made in: Japan
  • Head Size: 157x150mm
  • Anatomic Handle Size:102x24mm
  • Flared Handle Size: 100x25mm
  • Straight Handle Size: 100x23mm
  • Weight: 90g
  • Reaction: 123
  • Vibration: 111

Firstly, the blade is made in Japan according to the highest standards of workmanship. The weight of 90 grams is exactly how much it should not burden the hand without having powerful blows. We recommend it to attackers with extremely fast rubbers to bring their game to the highest level.

Secondly, Super ZLC carbon allows the racket to have a large sweet spot. This means that you will have the same feeling when hitting and controlling the ball, no matter from which part of the racket you hit at that moment, as you can see in the picture.

zhang jike super zlc sweet spot of the table tennis blade

Moreover, this expensive ping pong paddle comes in all three handle variants, so everyone will adjust to what kind of handle they have used before. Further, if you want the best ping pong blade from the most successful brand Butterfly with the name of the Olympic champion Zhang Jike, then this is the choice that will delight you.

Once you decide on this blade, you will never change it again because you will always feel the power and strength of the blows during training and matches.

most expensive table tennis blades butterfly zhang jike super zlc large picture blade

CHECK THE PRICE ON: MEGASPIN

Is it worth the money invested? Of course, it is. Many players say it’s the best and most high-speed ping pong paddle they’ve ever tried during the time.

So, as we have already said, attackers and experienced players who want to improve their speed and topspins will feel the magic of this most expensive table tennis blade.

2. Butterfly Amultart ZLC Table Tennis Blade

most expensive table tennis blades butterfly amultart zlc blade

CHECK THE CURRENT PRICE!

This is the leading hybrid of Butterfly’s table tennis blades with ZL fibers. High-speed blade with which you will get efficiency on topspins and ball blocks at any time.

Due to the ZL fibers achieve longer ball retention in terms of control when hitting in any position. We also recommend the table tennis blade to players who prefer an attack from half distance, which means they play aggressively but not close to the table.

At spin-to-spin points, you will feel the strength and power of this beautiful table tennis blade the most. Butterfly Amultart blade is 7.1mm thick and has three layers of wood plus two of ZL Carbon. This makes it very effective in topspins and, at the same time, exploited in attacks to increase the speed of the ball.

butterfly amultart zl carbon blade handle type

We highly recommend combining it with Butterfly rubbers such as Tenergy 05 or Dignics. You will achieve good precision and amplification of blows from the table with them.

Butterfly Amultart ZL Carbon comes in all handle shapes, so you can choose the one that suits you best. The vibration is also excellent, so whoever wants extra control and retention of the ball will have the opportunity to feel it with this blade.

Butterfly Amultart ZLC Blade Features

  • Class: OFF+
  • Style: Attack
  • Plies: 3W+2ZLC
  • Thickness: 7.1mm
  • Made in: Japan
  • Head Size: 157x150mm
  • Flared Handle Size: 100x25mm
  • Weight: 84g
  • Reaction: 122
  • Vibration: 137

However, superfast players who practice attacks in training and want to invest with topspins on both sides should take advantage of this beautiful table tennis blade.

There are many reasons why it is second of the most expensive table tennis blade. One of them is the quality of workmanship in Japan, which will last a very long time. In our opinion, you will never change it again when you try it. That is why it is worth the investment, and secondly, it provides speed and efficiency that you have never felt before.

If you opt for this table tennis blade, we recommend that you put side tape to save the racket. There is a lot of money to set aside, so you must well keep it. But, you will love him during the first training, you may not have control immediately until you get used to it, but you will love his power and speed after a while.

most expensive table tennis blades butterfly amultart two blades picture

CHECK THE CURRENT PRICE!

We must also say that it is a bit lighter than our first model, so younger players can also use it. It’s not a big difference, but it still means you are a junior or a cadet and looking for a place in your country’s national team.

3. Joola Vyzaryz Freeze Blade

most expensive table tennis blades joola vyzryz freeze blade

CHECK THE CURRENT PRICE!

Among the most expensive table tennis blades, this is the best when it comes to spins. This blade will provide an incredible sense of rotation due to its manufacturing technology, whether you prefer forehand spin, backhand spin, or playing from a distance.

Namely, the innovation of 5 + 2 layers, Limba’s outer, provides superior contact with the ball and thus good contact when attacking with topspins. The quality of workmanship is such according to AL-C technology and thus gives a powerful feeling in the hand.

Moreover, the expression freeze is not without reason in this beautiful Joola table tennis blade. The Freeze means that the innovative technique of hardening the layers at low temperatures has achieved an additional better feel and control of the ball. So, composite materials are produced in Japan and the handle in Italy.

most expensive table tennis blades joola vyzryz freeze composition 7 layers blade

We have to mention that you get a lot of control but not speed with freeze technology. This is why this blade differs from the first two in our article. If you are a player who plays more often on the safety of switching balls on the table without suddenly boosting, then this is the right blade for you.

If you want to get on the racket speed, we recommend that you create faster and harder rubbers, and then you will achieve that balance.

Joola Vyzaryz Freeze Blade Features

  • Class: OFF
  • Style: Attack
  • Plies: 7 (limba outer, limba, al – c, kiri core)
  • Thickness: 5.89mm
  • Dimensions: Head (Thickness: 5.8mm, Length: 157mm, Width: 151mm)
  • Dimensions: Flared Handle (Length: 100mm, Width: 34mm), Straight Handle (Length: 100mm, Width: 28mm)
  • Made in: Japan + Italy
  • Stiffness: Medium Stiff
  • Handle types: Flared, Straight, Chinese Penhold
  • Weight: 85g
  • Speed: 90, Control: 80, Hardness: 70

According to the analysis of the sponsored Joola coach, Matt Hetherington, this table tennis blade has a perfect touch, safety, spin control, and a high arc. However, according to him, it is suitable for players who play with high rotations.

joola vyzaryz freeze high arc definition and difference

On the other hand, strength and power come when your opponent attacks and you reinforce the balls with strong blocks or counter spins. In our opinion, if you are a player who trains less but plays on the feeling of the ball, you can also use Joola Vyzaryz Freeze. What is certain is that the blade is made to be easier to handle for defense and attack.

We recommend slower table tennis rubbers for intermediate players like Joola Energy X-tra, Gewo Neoflex, and Andro Hexer.

most expensive table tennis blades joola vyzaryz freeze blade

CHECK THE CURRENT PRICE!

Is it worth the money? Of course, you are if you are the type of player we have described. It would not be suitable to expect a game with quick attacks from the table, and then Joola Vyzaryz Freeze does not give you enough speed. But if you are a player who likes rotations and balls with a high arc, this is a great table tennis paddle.

4. Stiga Rosewood NCT VII Ping Pong Paddle

most expensive table tennis blade stiga rosewood nct 7 blade

CHECK THE CURRENT PRICE!

One of the fastest table tennis blades on the market. It contains Rosewood veneers, and thanks to that, you get maximum stability and a feeling of strength when attacking.

This is a very offensive blade with seven layers. This manufacturing technology has enabled the blade to have a large sweet spot while maximizing the impact force. On the other hand, you don’t lose control of the ball either, but it is more intended for aggressive attacks with topspins.

Firstly, the weight is 97 grams which means it is enough to feel and hold the racket firmly in your hand during an attack. It doesn’t have carbon fiber construction like other expensive paddles on our list.

Secondly, Stiga Rosewood is a high-speed table tennis blade to play near the table where you can make bets with topspins or even flips on short balls. It belongs to the best quality wooden blades globally.

Thirdly, you can control the ball by taking softer rubbers but fast enough. It will not be worth combining hard ping pong rubbers or too slow ones. For attacking style, it has better control and explosive power.

stiga rosewood nct 7 handle and blade type

Moreover, the price justifies the quality because Stiga is a well-known brand that directs production to equipment for modern players playing atomic table tennis.

Stiga Rosewood NCT VII Blade Features

  • Class: OFF+
  • Style: Attack
  • Plies: 7 (Wood + NCT) (2 * Rosewood 0.3mm, 2 * Ayous 0.8mm, 2 * Ayous 1.5mm, Ayous 1.6mm)
  • Speed: 91
  • Control: 60
  • Hardness: 100
  • Thickness: 6.9mm
  • Weight: 97g
  • Stiffness: 57
  • Width: 158mm
  • Height: 151mm
  • Made in: Sweden

Overall, the Stiga Rosewood NCT 7 is speedy and powerful. You should pay attention to short balls and pimps. You can only feel that precision with training.

Is Stiga Rosewood worth the money invested?

In any case, for players who train a lot and like aggressive modern table tennis, it is. We do not recommend this blade for more passive or defensive players.

But that’s why, with attacks, counter-spins, backhand blocks, or spin-offs from a distance from the table, with Rosewood, it’s absolute magic. You do not need any additional power or load. All you have to do is technically make the right move and not stiffen your hand, and the ball will go full force.

We recommend sticking table tennis rubbers such as the Butterfly Tenergy 64, Stiga Calibra LT Spin, and Yasaka Mark V xs.

CHECK THE CURRENT PRICE!

In the end, the composition is made of wood, but you have the impression that you are using a carbon blade. This is due to the superior Rosewood technology we have described. Players who used to or now play with a carbon blade know the difference.

5. Victas Liam Pitchford Expensive Table Tennis Paddle

most expensive table tennis blades victas liam pitchford blade

CHECK THE CURRENT PRICE!

Victas Liam Pitchford is the most expensive table tennis blade made by an English superstar player. The energy and strength of this beautiful blade are provided by Zexion carbon fibers that are placed directly under the outer layer.

For table tennis players who didn’t hear about Liam Pitchford, he is a top player who prefers attacks from near the table. So, this blade is made for you who like entrances with topspins near the table, and do not wait for the opponent to take the initiative.

However, speed ​​is excellent, but you must achieve control with better and more frequent workouts. It feels good to touch the ball, which means you can do nice blocks and spins near the table. The weight of the blade is 90 grams, which is well above average to have the effect of solid attacks.

difference between carbon and Z carbon table tennis blades

Firstly, carbon is lightweight and stable material often used in aircraft design. Develops great speed for direct attacks. It’s great for an aggressive playing style and faster than, for example, the Viscaria blade.

Secondly, the combination of Zexion and carbon enhances repulsive force, allowing both playstyles: rigid and flexible. Zexion is high elasticity and has excellent fiber.

However, we recommend it to the most experienced players or professionals who want to increase the speed of their game. On the other hand, when you are in good training, you will feel that the control of the ball is on your side.

Above all, Zexion carbon fibers give the racket superior reliability and safety of the ball on the short points. The blade comes with flared and straight handles so you can adjust to how you’ve played before.

Victas Liam Pitchford Blade Features

  • Class: OFF
  • Style: Attack
  • Plies: 7 (5 wood + 2 Zexion carbon)
  • Speed: 87
  • Control: 80
  • Hardness: 90
  • Thickness: 5.9mm
  • Weight: 86g
  • Stiffness: 70
  • Width: 157mm
  • Height: 150mm
  • Made in: Japan

Firstly, the blade is very hard, and it is recommended to put soft table tennis rubbers to achieve balance. Of course, they need fast and attacking rubbers, but to be soft like Butterfly Tenergy 05 FX, Yasaka Rakza X Soft, and Tibhar Evolution MX-P 50.

Secondly, look at Liam Pitchford and the way he plays, and then you will see how the blade is made, which suits his style more. His top matches are on the following YouTube address.

Moreover, one should consider the seven-layer blade, which allows for excellent speed and reasonable control thanks to Zexion fibers.

most expensive table tennis blades victas liam pitchford two blades different handle

CHECK THE CURRENT PRICE!

Liam Pitchford’s blade will surely suit you if you are a striker with topspins that contain rotations or faster balls near the table. With short balls and pimps, you need to adjust a little, but even that won’t be a problem after a week or two of training.

6. Gewo Aruna Hinoki Carbon Blade

most expensive table tennis blades gewo aruna hinoki carbon blade

CHECK THE CURRENT PRICE!

Very offensive and one of the most expensive table tennis blades which the legendary Mr. Quadri Aruna makes.

However, we can say that the blend of dualism, on the one hand, is made for strong punches and touches, and on the other hand, it is perfectly balanced and provides gentle feedback.

Firstly, it is made of the finest and carefully selected Hinoki veneers, which brings the player’s feeling to perfection.

Secondly, it features a slightly softer inner core with extra carbon fiber for better ball control.

Moreover, Gewo Aruna Hinoki Carbon is a high-quality and the most expensive table tennis blade from Gewo. With slightly larger dimensions and is manufactured to the highest quality standards. In any case, the blade is not too stiff, so it belongs to the category of players who prefer ball control without having a specific strength in attack.

most expensive table tennis blade model Gewo Aruna Hinoki Carbon Blade Features

Unlike other expensive paddles, we recommend using harder rubbers with a thick sponge to achieve balance. We can say that it belongs to the OFF category of premium table tennis rackets. That’s because it’s not too fast, and it has a specific dose of vibration when in contact with the ball. That’s why it is perfect for blocks and a more precise division of balls all over the table to make the opponent move more.

It is recommended for players who prefer an attack, but not so much with topspins. So, with precise shots closer to the table tennis table.

Gewo Aruna Hinoki Carbon Blade Features

  • Class: OFF to OFF+
  • Style: Attack
  • Plies: 7 (5 wood + 2 carbon)
  • Speed: 101
  • Control: 88
  • Hardness: 85
  • Thickness: 5.75mm
  • Weight: 89g
  • Stiffness: 85
  • Made in: Germany

How often have you just watched a video about the most spectacular points starring Aruna Quadri? If not, see below.

The most trophy-winning African table tennis player of all time is known for his powerful forehand shots, which led him to the Top 20 players in the world. To maintain the level of a world table tennis star, Aruna must be on the best path, “The Better Way To Play,” which is why he chose GEWO.

The close cooperation of German wood specialists and the practical experience of a top table tennis player has produced the Aruna table tennis blade series, which is of top quality and sophisticated design.

gewo aruna hinoki carbon off blade

CHECK THE CURRENT PRICE!

That’s why you get 100% Aruna for your money! The edge of the racket is made of ABS technology, which gives it strength and reduces the likelihood that the wood will be damaged when hitting a table or slipping.

7. Butterfly Lin Gaoyuan ALC New Blade

most expensive table tennis blade lin gaouyan main image

CHECK THE CURRENT PRICE!

The Butterfly Lin Gaoyuan ALC New Table Tennis Blade is excellent for players who want a powerful and consistent paddle.

The blade has high resilience and a perfect balance of speed and control. The handle is very comfortable and makes it easy to switch from forehand to backhand side. It is a good blade with high control and consistency.

The speed is not high but decent. The only downside is the price, as it is one of the more expensive paddles on the market. However, the quality of the paddle makes it worth the investment for serious and advanced players.

The ball almost seems to pick up speed after touching the opponent’s side. Blocking has the same control as before.

However, the punch block seems to be easier for me to perform. Service and short receive also perform well. The spin is still present even though the Lin Gaoyuan seems faster than the Viscaria. Also, it has a longer dwell time.

Butterfly Lin Gaoyuan Blade Features

  • Playing style: Attack (OFF)
  • Composition: Arylate Carbon
  • Blade Thickness: 5.7
  • Flared handle size: 101 x 24 mm
  • Straight handle size: 100 x 22 mm
  • Ping pong paddle Plies: 5 wood + 2 arylate carbon
  • Vibration: 103
  • Reaction: 118
  • Weight: 87 grams

The thick blade gives the table tennis racket good stability, while the depth of the blade provides excellent power and spin potential. The large sweet spot also makes it a great choice for players who want to be able to hit the ball with precision and power.

butterfly lin gaouyan handle types of the blade and serial number

CHECK THE CURRENT PRICE!

Also, it may be too light for some players, but overall it is an excellent option for anyone looking for high-performance and expensive ping pong paddles. This blade is made from the highest quality materials, and it’s designed to provide a fantastic shot feeling and performance.

It’s also compatible with Stiga DNA Platinum rubber, making it an ideal choice for players who want to get the most out of their game.

8. Nittaku Violin Table Tennis Blade

most expensive table tennis blade nittaku violin main image

CHECK THE CURRENT PRICE!

The Nittaku Violin table tennis blade is a superb choice for advanced players who demand the very best. The Violin blade uses a unique binding method generally reserved for crafting high-end stringed instruments.

As a result, it offers exceptional speed and an unparalleled feeling of control. In addition, this expensive ping pong paddle is made with only the finest quality materials, making it a truly outstanding option for competitive players.

The Nittaku Violin is an expensive blade, but it is worth it. The blade is made from quality materials, and it is such a blade that provides all the speed you need without losing control or feeling.

The blade is also fast, but it doesn’t lose control. This makes theViolin an excellent choice for those who want a high-quality and expensive table tennis racket.

Nittaku Violin Blade Features

  • Playing style: Attack (OFF)
  • Composition: 5-ply all-wood blade
  • Blade Thickness: 5.3
  • Flared handle size: 102 x 23 mm
  • Straight handle size: 100 x 23 mm
  • Control: 65
  • Speed: 88
  • Weight: 88 grams

With its all-around playing style, the Nittaku Violin is a great choice for those who want to deliver quick loops with plenty of spins. The blade’s longer dwell time and increased flexibility make it easy to generate much power, while the high control ensures that your shots will stay on target.

CHECK THE CURRENT PRICE!

Expensive Ping Pong Paddles on Amazon

If you’re looking for a ping pong paddle that will help you play an attacking style of game, then you’ll want to check out these picks from Amazon.

There’s a wide range of table tennis equipment on the market, so choosing a paddle that suits your playing style is essential. These models are all designed for players who prefer to attack, and they offer great control and power.


Most Expensive Table Tennis Rubber

The Butterfly Dingics models 80, 64, 09c, and 05 are some of the most expensive table tennis rubbers. They all retail for 93.99. While this may seem like a lot of money, these rubbers are designed for professional players and offer a significant advantage over cheaper models.

The Dingics models have a softer sponge, making them more responsive and providing more spin. They also have a tacky surface which helps to grip the ball.

As a result, they are much better suited for competitive play. If you are serious about table tennis, investing in a good quality rubber is essential. While the Butterfly Dingics models may be pricey, they will give you an edge over your opponents.

Why Are Butterfly Blades So Expensive?

First, Butterfly is one of the most popular manufacturers in the sport. Their products are preferred by many pro players for their quality and consistency.

Second, Butterfly blades are made with high-end materials that provide exceptional performance. The most expensive table tennis blade is from the Butterfly brand, and the second and third ones also.

And finally, Butterfly invests heavily in research and development to ensure that its products are always at the forefront of technology. As a result, Butterfly table tennis blades offer superior quality and performance, making them worth the price tag.

Worth buying the most expensive table tennis blade?

Many friends often ask me if they should buy the most expensive table tennis blade for their children, hoping that they will achieve a top result. It can be a double-edged sword.

So, remember that you should not immediately take the most expensive and fastest rackets, especially for children. They need to get used to learning the technique of playing and moving, so they can slowly replace their table tennis rackets.

samsonov playing near the table backhand

If you are an experienced player, it is worth taking and changing the blade because you already have enough experience, and you will quickly get used to it. Please pay attention to the analyzes we talked about in this article to find the one that suits you.

Whenever you want to change a racket, blade, or rubber, remember what Liu Guoliang said: There is no best table tennis paddle in the world; there is only a paddle that suits your style of play.

In conclusion, carefully choose and inform yourself about table tennis blades’ characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages and then decide.

Of course, the most expensive blades provide top quality. But, if you hit your style with the qualities of wood, then you are on the right path. So, you will surely be happy and delighted with your new table tennis racket.

Megaspin_sale-50pct-off-468x60

Most Expensive Table Tennis Blade – Conclusion

Any blade you choose from our list will surely speed up and improve your game. The only question is how ready you are to train to feel a table tennis blade fully?

Each has a different composition, thickness, speed, control, and other characteristics. They are very high quality, durable, and give incredible momentum in the game.

Above all, we would like to mention that you shouldn’t try a blade from this list as your first one. Firstly, you need to learn to play table tennis. Once you have learned the primary skills and have good footwork, it is time to move on to a faster or the most expensive table tennis blade.

rackets on the table with balls and net
The most expensive table tennis blade is designed for players’ fast and attacking style. This means that you will achieve maximum effect combined with natural table tennis rubbers.

Also, you will have a racket that you can use for the rest of your life. This means that you will only change the rubbers when worn out. So, this investment is such that you use it all your life once you have invested.

Therefore, in conclusion, we can freely say that choosing the right table tennis blade will please you and improve the game of this beautiful sport for years.

 

Popular Posts

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published.